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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Beijing is banning Chinese tour groups from visiting South Korea, the latest retaliation against the planned Korean deployment of the US-built Thaad missile shield, according to two people with knowledge of the plans.

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STEP 4: REMIND EVERYONE about what an "idiot" or "moron" they are
5月14日,英国佳士得拍卖行拍出世界上最大的无暇艳彩蓝钻。
阿方索?卡隆(Alfonso Cuaron)凭藉广受好评的全球热门太空科幻影片《地心引力》(Gravity)赢得最佳导演奖。《地心引力》、《美国骗局》和《为奴十二年》均有可能成为今年奥斯卡奖(Academy Awards)的夺奖热门,本周四将公布今年奥斯卡奖提名名单。(与金球奖不同,奥斯卡奖还设置技术类奖项。)

How do you know if you need to drink more water? Well, there's a list of factors: dry lips, dizziness, headaches, low urine output and increased thirst. Yet, this smart bottle wants you to listen more to your phone than to your body.
5. The top 300bureaucrats will rally behind Xi’s reforms and these bold new programs, backingthe central government while bringing these ambitions to their provincialgovernments and setting parallel growth goals at home. Detailed plans forreform and accelerated growth will be set, and then promptly executed, ingeographies across China. We expect the tier three and four markets torally again this year, growing faster than tier one and two cities.
会,即便真实的GDP增速未超过这个数字。关于中国真正的(相对官方数据而言)GDP增长率的猜测,已经衍生出一个由相关经济学专家组成的作坊式行业。官方数据看似稳定而美好——有人怀疑中国有关部门对数据进行了“美化”,调整了一些数字、使其符合增长目标。因此,即使2018年中国的增长磕磕绊绊,官方的增速也几乎肯定会高于预定的6.5%。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

武汉查处和通报200多家房地产经纪机构

But Anne Simpson, senior portfolio manager and director of global governance at the US pension fund Calpers, a prominent Apple shareholder, believes his ethical stance is more than just posturing. “He has a charming disregard for showmanship,” she says. “Tim Cook applies this Apple notion of elegance and excellence to these new arenas.”
以下是今年BrandZ全球最具价值品牌百强榜出现的一些趋势:
Xinhua reported in 2015 that the MOE and five other central government departments were putting together a task force to ensure that football thrives in the country's schools.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

6.I Love You Phillip Morris
无论你是否认为Snapchat配得上Facebook开出的30亿美元报价,有一点确定无疑:所谓的“阅后即焚”(内容被接收数秒后自动消失)社交网络拥有广阔的市场应用空间。此外,与流行的看法相反,Snapchat传播的内容不仅仅是色情短信和限制级的自拍照片,尽管它也的确是传播这类信息的最佳平台。随着主流社交平台的内容变得越来越商品化,以Snapchat为代表的“阅后即焚”平台在某种程度上重新恢复了社交媒体本应具备的趣味性和自发性。就像现实生活中的互动交流一样——创意自由流动,一般不用担心一切事情都被记录下来留给子孙后代观瞻,传遍整个世界——SnapChat提供了一个真实的、未经过滤的交流渠道。孩子们真的很喜欢它。Facebook公司自己的首席财务官上个月已正式承认,青少年使用Facebook的次数正在下降.而据坊间传言,驻足于Snapchat的青少年数量正在呈爆炸式增长。
国际消费类电子产品展

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • In an explanation released alongside the latest data, the statistics bureau credited ongoing growth in producer prices in part to coal extraction and washing prices, up 15.4 per cent for the period and accelerating 11.3 percentage points from a month earlier.
  • 北京发布征求意见:新房拟实施交付前质量查验制度
  • Joakim Noah, meanwhile, proved to be so untradeable that he couldn't even generate a rumor.
  • 北京已开始执行楼市新政 二手房房主酝酿涨价
  • 2015家具行业面临洗牌背后面临的问题和遭遇的困境
  • adj. 有资格的,有限制的
    此前,跨国房地产经纪机构仲量联行(JLL)的数据显示,2016年全年,中国对外房地产投资额增长了53%,达到创纪录的330亿美元。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 林氏木业:互联网大潮来袭 家具行业亟需集群, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

从绿色建筑到宜居宜业绿色城区 还有多远?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

陶瓷喷墨打印技术现多元化发展格局

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 历史学家希望解开有关理查三世的谜团,公开证据以反驳他杀害了两个年轻侄子的说法,重点关注他在位两年期间的成就,包括建立了保释制度和法律援助制度。
    周日也就是张天羽的作品被谷歌展示的前一天,她接受纽约长岛报纸《新闻日》的采访,表示自己对获奖感到兴奋,但不会熬夜等自己的作品上线。
  • 不久后,拉塞尔爱上了一名叫菲利普·莫里斯的狱友。莫里斯出狱后,拉塞尔通过给职员办公室打电话再次越狱,还假冒法官,大幅降低了自己的保释金。为了和莫里斯在一起,他又被捕和逃脱了两次,一度假装自己已经离世。他现在被判终身监禁,但表示看到自己的电影形象很激动。
    我喜欢这个列表(很棒的观点),但是我觉得我要更详细的完善一下怎样成为一个高效老板或者经理。
    不过,对其他地区的出口却差多了,尤其是对转口地区香港的贸易,该月以美元计的对香港出口同比下滑26.3%至338.4亿美元。对欧盟(EU)国家的出口也下滑4.7%至335亿美元。而对日本出口则下滑5.5%至112.7亿美元。
    And, this year, Star Wars found its way onto the list as well, with ‘starwars’ claiming the 16th spot.
    在第二轮(重新)谈判不久前结束后,我们真正进入了贸易谈判的技术官僚阶段。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 业内:个税法拟增住房租金等专项扣除 首套房重大利好
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 旧楼装电梯 应引入补偿金制度

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

12岁的年纪,大多数的小女孩都还在向父母争取打耳洞的机会,努力适应高中生活,从青少年时代开始为将来做准备。
勉强能。民主党需要再赢得24个席位,这意味着他们需要守住特朗普去年胜选的全部12个民主党选区,并拿下23个在大选中投票支持希拉里克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的共和党选区,另外再添上一两个选区。算起来形势对民主党不利,但从历史先例来看形势有利于民主党。历任总统所在的政党几乎总会在中期选举时丢掉一些众议院席位,有时丢得还挺多,特别是当在位总统的支持率低于50%的时候。看一看2010年的巴拉克奥巴马(Barack Obama)就知道了。
● “肉桂卷会在人类屁股内爆炸”
津巴布韦新任领导人会举行公平的选举并胜选吗?
他们在官方的欢迎仪式上也迟到了40分钟,在温哥华的一场活动中也迟到了。
“…was asked ttell the interviewer a little about herself, and didn’t have anything tsay.”
con共同,sci知道,ious多:什么都知道-清醒

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • “很显然,单独一个年度,即使是创记录的年度,不可能告诉我们很多关于气候变化趋势的东西,”德国波茨坦气候影响研究所地球系统分析部门主管斯德范·拉姆斯朵夫(Stefan Rahmstorf)说。“然而,有记录以来的最热年度是2014年、2010年和2005年的这个事实清楚地表明,全球变暖并没有‘在1998年停止’,像一些人喜欢错误地宣称那样。”
  • 东鹏1500万收购广州艺耐62%股权 拓展中高端卫浴市场
  • THE AMERICANS (FX, Jan. 28) Season 3 of this terrific blend of Cold War spy thriller and family drama begins with Washington’s K.G.B. contingent feeling the weight of the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Frank Langella joins the cast as the new handler for the show’s husband-and-wife agents, replacing Margo Martindale’s Claudia. (Making its premiere eight days later: NBC’s “Allegiance,” about Russian spies embedded in the United States. Huh.)
    作为每年都会有超过100万人参加的国家级考试,研究生入学考试对于学生的学习生涯是非常重要的,而作弊事件也一而再再而三被曝光。
  • 北京市住建委:探索建立房地产长效机制
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 网友“Xuelili”说:“作为一个土生土长的陕西人,我认为孙俪演得很好。她上蹿下跳的感觉,和典型的陕西妹子一模一样。”
    10. 《结果》(Results),导演:安德鲁·布西内斯克(Andrew Bujalski)。
  • The ranking includes schools from 26 countries, including 35 in the US, 10in the UK and nine in China. Renmin University of China School of Business in Beijing rose furthest, climbing 18 places to 43rd. Four schools made it into the ranking for the first time. These are led by Cambridge Judge Business School at 36th. France’s Grenoble Business School is ranked 70th, Turkey’s Sabanci University School of Management is at99th, and Brazil’s Coppead is at 100th.
    去年,酷热天气覆盖了阿拉斯加州和大部分美国西部地区。地面温度在所有有人居住的大陆上都创下了记录。科学家说,海洋表面在除南极洲附近海域以外的几乎所有水域中都异常温暖,为造成巨大破坏的太平洋风暴提供了能量。
  • 作为本田的高端品牌,讴歌去年共售出167,843辆,同比微增1.5%。而在美国这一备受豪华车品牌青睐的市场上,丰田的高端品牌雷克萨斯销量增幅为13.7%,宝马增幅为9.8%,奥迪增幅为15.2%,梅赛德斯-奔驰增幅为6.5%。
    美国太空探索技术公司取得了一项令人难以置信的成就。“猎鹰9号”发射器的一级火箭在成功将货物运送到国际空间站后,能够自主转向,释放了主发动机燃烧提供的巨大动能,飞回地球并垂直降落在漂浮在大西洋上的一艘相当小的自动驳船上,极其精准。
  • 差不多人人都知道谷歌的分析工具Google Analytics,但是你是否用过谷歌的网站管理员工具(Google Webmaster Tools)?作为一名营销人员,我认为谷歌的网站管理工具是我用过的最重要的免费工具之一。你肯定想让自己公司的名字出现在谷歌搜索结果之中,对吧?那么为什么不听听谷歌网站管理员工具教给你的诀窍呢?
    1号 what the fuck: “职场辣妈”的新境界
    Online sales contributed 82.6 percent of sales. Online sales have prompted traditional stores, including 13 of Beijing's 77 "time-honored brands" from snack stores to shoes sellers, to move their goods online.
  • 汉娜库赫勒(Hannah Kuchler)是驻旧金山记者
    8Australia
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 2017年建材家居行业十大趋势:设计师对行业影响将越来越大 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

金融街:资管业务亮点纷呈

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

并非所有橱柜企业都能走“设计品牌”之路

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

从手工家具到智能家居 27年见证家居变迁

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

房企“国家队”:推动“住有所居”到“住有宜居”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Gender diversity is increasing among graduates working in the financial industry, according to data collected for the 2017 edition of the Financial Times ranking of masters in finance programmes.
  • *Writing for a Variety Series: “Last Week Tonight With John Oliver”
  • 顺德今年“村改”将拆除1.3万亩破旧厂房

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 2010年英文新年祝福邮件
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • n. 污染,污染物
    单词transport 联想记忆:
    This assumes, of course, that Apple can find a way to build a $330 iPhone with cheaper parts, a slower processor, a lower resolution screen and perhaps a plastic body, thatisn't, in the phrase Tim Cook used at a Goldman Sachs conference last week, "a crappy product."
  • After being named Esquire's "Sexiest Women Alive" in October and Details' "Most F*ckable Celebrity" last month, the gorgeous 29-year-old has now snagged another honor: FHM's "Sexiest Woman In The World 2013," beating 99 other ladies and countless more who didn't even make the list.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章
  • 二线城地价频频创新高 房价涨势已经直逼北上深
  • The latest commerce ministry figures do not include real estate purchases by individuals, many of whom exploit loopholes in China's capital control regime to obtain foreign currency. But the foreign exchange regulator has recently moved to close such loopholes, notably by tightening control of forex purchases by individuals, who are allowed to exchange $50,000 worth of renminbi for foreign currency each year.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 欠六千万失踪 别墅被强制评估
  • Household substance abuse
  • 人民房评:监管中介炒高房租仅靠"约谈"、"承诺"远不够
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

北京公积金新政:违规提取5年禁提禁贷

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 外媒看中国人假离婚买房:“新套路”不仅因贪婪
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 数据显示上半年财政社保和就业支出增长11.3%
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

对“最后的共同祖先”的认识发生了改观

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

I give you endless brand-new good wishes. Please accept them as a new remembrance of our lasting friendship.
“有些人说自己去吃午饭了,然后一去不回。”
Baby Driver is so much fun, although it's not necessarily non-stop LOLs, it's definitely non-stop lowercase lols.
赢家:猛龙
以下10种妖魔就像无人机一样,瞄准了股市、债市和世界经济:
As if 2016 hadn’t been hard enough for China’s workforce, an annual survey has revealed that more than half of the country’s white-collar employees got no year-end bonus ahead of the upcoming (and costly) lunar new year holiday.
很多明星获得的小金人都被放在了父母身边,安吉丽娜·朱莉(Angeline Jolie)已故的母亲多年来一直保存着女儿因影片《女生向前走》(Girl)获得的最佳女配角奖杯。妮可·基德曼(Nicole Kidman)因影片《时时刻刻》(《The Hours》)获得了最佳女主角奖,奖杯就放在她父母家中的壁炉台上,来串门的邻居都可以看到。詹妮弗·劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)于2013年凭借《乌云背后的幸福线》(Silver Linings Playbook)获得第85届奥斯卡最佳女主角,奖杯放在她父母家中的钢琴上。
乔斯·威登一直都很喜欢科幻小说,也是西部小说的忠实拥趸。尽管这两种小说类型风马牛不相及,但是从《天使杀手》这部书中,他找到了一种方式,可以把二者融合起来。"我当时想把新垦地的概念好好地演绎一下",他说,"人类文明是由那些被历史深深伤害了的人们推动前行的,而不是那些创造历史的伟人。"这一次,威登决定把新垦地从西部搬到了"宁静号"宇宙飞船上。
美国演员、作家、时装设计师、舞蹈演员、制片人、歌手——拥有这么多头衔的珍妮弗·洛佩兹是2015年全球十大美女的亚军。作为一个结过三次婚的女星,洛佩兹的感情问题一直都是世界各国媒体关注的焦点。除涉足娱乐圈外,她还在商业领域颇有建树,其中包括经营服装、配饰、香水等。此外,她拥有一家制片公司,主持电视节目,还成立了一家慈善机构。
We will weave a strong safety net to ensure people's wellbeing.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

新年新规:新个税法实施引关注 独生子女补助标准提高

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 雷文斯克罗夫特认为,如果他成为一名管理顾问,他的视野可能会相对狭窄。教学工作也有助于他变得愿意承担风险——这来之不易。“如果你曾站在30名会毫不犹豫地指出你的错误的青少年面前讲课,这种体验可能会让你变得愿意去尝试。”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Death may be behind the ritual of the critic’s top 10 lists, including that of physical media: Lists are easy to read on cellphones even if the deluge of entertainment media increasingly makes comprehensive viewing near-impossible. More than 900 movies will have opened in New York by the end of this year, many slipping in and out of theaters quickly and racing toward on-demand oblivion. Even so, I watched several hundred features over the year and liked quite a few; the major studios and the independent sector released the expected junk but, as usual, movies of merit. What follows are my favorite moving pictures of 2015 and another 10 miscellaneous notes on the year.
  • 家居行业景气下滑 亚振家具存货居高仍投6亿扩产
  • 祝福您,新年快乐。
  • 中央经济工作会议:明年要针对突出问题打好重点战役
  • slice

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 展望“十三五”:力促制造业提质增效由大变强
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 其他在定制课程排名中表现突出的学校包括哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School),该院取得了今年最大幅度的排名攀升,上升9位至第5名。两年前,这所位于马萨诸塞州的学院还排在第18位。
  • 为什么小皇帝詹姆斯不在双头肌和肩膀上再带那些奇怪的饰物,对此我很好奇。当然,我敢打赌他不会再带那些东西——因为它们没啥用处。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

一线房价4月跌出涨幅榜前十 周边及二线楼市逆袭

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